Chemical peel is skin resurfacing , typically characterized as the application of variety of chemical solutions to peel away the top layers of the skin and expose a smoother, even textured surface while stimulating repair and rejuvenating mechanism to produce new cells. They also reduce excess oils to minimize the occurrence of acne while controlling oil production and hydration. Stimulating cellular turnover, chemical peels are reducing appearance of hyper-pigmentation, fine lines and wrinkles. All these changes are manifested in more healthy, youthful looking skin.
The most common types of chemical peels are done with active ingredients as alpha hydroxy acids (AHA), beta hydroxy acids (BHA) and trichloracetic acid (TCA).
AHA are water soluble acids derived from fruits, nuts, milks and sugars. Some representatives of AHA are glycolic acid (from sugars), lactic acid (from milk), citric acid (from citrus fruit and corn), malic acid (from apples and green grapes), mandelic acid ( from almonds) and tartaric acid (from cranberry and grapes). AHA break down the bonds between skin cells, which allow the easier exfoliation of dead surface cells, kind of loosening the “glue” that holds the skin cells together.
BHA are works the same as AHA but they are oil soluble and often penetrates much dipper. Salicylic acid is BHA derived from willow tree bark, wintergreen oil and sweet birch.
Chemical peels are often classified by how deeply they can penetrate the skin, and ultimately how much they wound the skin. The deeper the peel penetrates, the more the skin is wounded, and the greater down time and risk involved. While light chemical peels are performed by esthetician, medium and deep chemical peels should be performed by physician.
Light chemical peels are defined as superficial. These peels reach into the epidermis and only impact the top layers of the skin. Light chemical peels are usually having a concentration of less than 10% of BHA and TCA and less than 30% AHA. They are used to treat fine lines, wrinkles, acne and acne scars, uneven skin color (pigmentation) and dry or oily skin condition.
Medium chemical peels can be prone to more complications, they penetrates deeper and are used to treat deep wrinkles and scars and dermal pigmentation issues. Medium chemical peels are usually having a concentration of AHA between 30% and 70% and BHA and TCA between 10% and 35%.
Deep peels like Phenol are the most aggressive and used for the removal of precancerous grows, deep wrinkles and acne scars.
Any chemical peels should always be followed by appropriate anti-inflammatory daily care products to help to repair skin barrier and to prevent inflammation. It is very important to use pharmaceutical skin care products with SPF protection to protect the skin and to prevent developing the postinflamatory hyper-pigmentation .
In my practice I work with PCA chemical peels that are a safe blend of active ingredients such as AHA,BHA, TCA together with retinoids, antioxidants and poliphenols incorporated into the complicated formulas to flood the skin with these beneficial actives during treatment. To get the best result I create customized chemical peels program for every client depends on client skin type, conditions and concerns.